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Source and Source Relations

Lashmar, P. ORCID: 0000-0001-9049-3985 (2019). Source and Source Relations. In: Vos, T. P. & Hanusch, F. (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies. . John Wiley & Sons. doi: 10.1002/9781118841570.iejs0270


In seeking to understand the construction of news, how journalist-source relationships function is a core concern of journalism studies. These relationships are not necessarily a simple one-way transfer of information but can be a complex interaction that may require understanding of journalism practices, journalism ethics, media law, commerce and the state to elucidate. Normatively, whether identified, anonymous or confidential sources or whistle-blowers, sources can provide journalists with the means to challenge official and elite narratives. This entry details the type and nature of professional relationships between journalists and their personal sources and note the mounting threats to this vital practice. While there are laws to protect journalist’s sources, international organisations note they are at risk of erosion, restriction and compromise - a direct challenge to the universal human rights of freedom of expression and a threat to investigative journalism.

Publication Type: Book Section
Additional Information: This is the version that has been accepted for publication in The International Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies by Wiley. Lashmar, P. (2024). Sources and Source Relations. In The International Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies (eds T.P. Vos, F. Hanusch, D. Dimitrakopoulou, M. Geertsema-Sligh and A. Sehl).
Publisher Keywords: source, whistle-blower, verification, freedom of expression, national security, shield law
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BJ Ethics
H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
K Law > K Law (General)
Departments: School of Communication & Creativity > Journalism
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