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Interoperability Benefits and Challenges in Smart City Services: Blockchain as a Solution

Biswas, S. ORCID: 0000-0002-6770-9845, Yao, Z., Yan, L. , Alqhatani, A., Bairagi, A. K., Asiri, F. & Masud, M. (2023). Interoperability Benefits and Challenges in Smart City Services: Blockchain as a Solution. Electronics, 12(4), article number 1036. doi: 10.3390/electronics12041036


The widespread usage of smart devices with various city-centric services speeds up and improves civic life, in contrast to growing privacy and security concerns. Security issues are exacerbated when e-government service providers trade their services within a centralised framework. Due to security concerns, city-centric centralised services are being converted to blockchain-based systems, which is a very time-consuming and challenging process. The interoperability of these blockchain-based systems is also more challenging due to protocol variances, an excessive amount of local transactions that raise scalability and rapidly occupy memory. In this paper, we have proposed a framework for interoperability across various blockchain-based smart city services. It also summarises how independent service providers might continue self-service choices (i.e., local transactions) without overloading the blockchain network and other organisations. A simulated interoperability network is used to show the network’s effectiveness. The experimental outcomes show the scalability and memory optimization of the blockchain network.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Publisher Keywords: blockchain; IoT; security and privacy; smart home; distributed ledger technology
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics
Departments: School of Science & Technology
School of Science & Technology > Computer Science
SWORD Depositor:
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