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Ethnic inequalities in age‐related patterns of multiple long‐term conditions in England: Analysis of primary care and nationally representative survey data

Hayanga, B. ORCID: 0000-0003-0696-0064, Stafford, M., Saunders, C. L. & Bécares, L. (2023). Ethnic inequalities in age‐related patterns of multiple long‐term conditions in England: Analysis of primary care and nationally representative survey data. Sociology of Health & Illness, doi: 10.1111/1467-9566.13724


Little is known about the patterning of multiple long‐term conditions (MLTCs) by age, ethnicity and across conceptualisations of MLTCs (e.g. MLTCs with/without mental health conditions [MHCs]). We examined ethnic inequalities in age‐related patterns of MLTCs, and combinations of physical and MHCs using the English GP Patient Survey and Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We described the association between MLTCs and age using multilevel regression models adjusting for sex and area‐level deprivation with patients nested within GP practices. Similar analyses were repeated for MLTCs that include MHCs. We observed ethnic inequalities from middle‐age onwards such as older Pakistani, Indian, Black Caribbean and Other ethnic people had increased risk of MLTCs compared to white British people, even after adjusting for area‐level deprivation. Compared to white British people, Gypsy and Irish Travellers had higher levels of MLTCs across the age groups, and Chinese people had lower levels. Pakistani and Bangladeshi people aged 50–74 years were more likely than white people to report MLTCs that included MHCs. We find clear evidence of ethnic inequalities in MLTCs. The lower prevalence of MLTCs that include MHCs among some minoritised ethnic groups may be an underestimation due to underdiagnosis and/or inadequate primary care and requires further scrutiny.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. ©2023 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Publisher Keywords: age-related patterns, ethnicity, general practice, health inequali-ties, multiple long-term conditions
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GF Human ecology. Anthropogeography
H Social Sciences > HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences
School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Healthcare Services Research & Management
SWORD Depositor:
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