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Improved Bond Stress-Slip Relationships for Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Polymer-Strengthened Masonry Triplets

Hashemi, S. M. ORCID: 0000-0002-8341-7500 & Ayoub, A. ORCID: 0000-0002-2670-9662 (2024). Improved Bond Stress-Slip Relationships for Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Polymer-Strengthened Masonry Triplets. Buildings, 14(1), article number 257. doi: 10.3390/buildings14010257


Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) emerges as a viable solution for reinforcing unreinforced masonry (URM) walls subjected to shear loads. While masonry structures are straightforward to construct, the complexity of the construction materials, especially in terms of their mechanical properties, poses challenges for numerical studies of their structural behaviour. Walls, being fundamental components in masonry construction, play a crucial role in transferring both horizontal and vertical lateral forces. This study investigates the enhancement of masonry wall behaviour through the reinforcement of CFRP. CFRP reinforcement increases ductility and strength, reducing the risk of failure under shear conditions. Additionally, CFRP composites present a practical solution to strengthening masonry structures compared to traditional reinforcement. However, brick, mortar, and CFRP have not been thoroughly investigated. Experimental tests on the bond behaviour of different configurations of CFRP-retrofitted masonry triplets have not been performed before and are therefore presented in this paper. Triplet specimens, comprising three bricks and two mortar joints, both with and without CFRP strengthening, were subjected to bond testing. The study affirms that masonry triplets strengthened with CFRP under shear loads exhibit strength levels at least four to six times greater than those without CFRP. The experimental work was carried out with eight different CFRP configurations on triplet masonry, and each test was repeated four times. Further, the bond stress-slip relationship in the case of masonry triplets with and without CFRP was predicted with new mathematical equations based on the conducted test results. These equations were included in the commercial finite element software ANSYS and used to conduct simulations of CFRP-reinforced masonry triplets. The numerical results indicate good agreement between the finite element model and the test results. The outcome of this research improves the current knowledge on the use of CFRP to reinforce masonry walls with brick and mortar, which will contribute to the understanding of the effect of CFRP on masonry structures.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2024 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Publisher Keywords: unreinforced masonry; fibre-reinforced polymer; bond stress-slip; interface behaviour; masonry triplets; shear load; finite element modelling; bricks; mortar joints
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TH Building construction
Departments: School of Science & Technology
School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
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Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution International Public License 4.0.

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