City Research Online

Translation and Validation of the City Birth Trauma Scale With Lithuanian Postpartum Women: Findings and Initial Results

Riklikienė, O., Jarašiūnaitė-Fedosejeva, G., Sakalauskienė, E. , Luneckaitė, Ž. & Ayers, S. ORCID: 0000-0002-6153-2460 (2024). Translation and Validation of the City Birth Trauma Scale With Lithuanian Postpartum Women: Findings and Initial Results. Evaluation & the Health Professions, p. 1632787241239339. doi: 10.1177/01632787241239339


The childbirth experience and birth-related trauma are influenced by various factors, including country, healthcare system, a woman’s history of traumatic experiences, and the study’s design and instruments. This study aimed to validate the City Birth Trauma scale for Lithuanian women post-childbirth. Using a descriptive, cross-sectional survey with a nonprobability sample of 794 women who gave birth from 2020–2021, the study found good validity, reliability, and presented the prevalence of birth-related stress symptoms. A bifactor model, consisting of a general birth trauma factor and two specific factors for birth-related symptoms and general symptoms of PTSD, showed the best model fit. The Lithuanian version of the City Birth Trauma scale can be effectively used in research and clinical practice to identify birth-related trauma symptoms in women after giving birth.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License ( which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the Sage and Open Access page ( © The Author(s) 2024.
Publisher Keywords: perinatal mental health, trauma, City BiTS, validation, Lithuania
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
R Medicine > RG Gynecology and obstetrics
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences
School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Midwifery & Radiography
SWORD Depositor:
[thumbnail of riklikiene-et-al-2024-translation-and-validation-of-the-city-birth-trauma-scale-with-lithuanian-postpartum-women.pdf]
Text - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (552kB) | Preview


Add to AnyAdd to TwitterAdd to FacebookAdd to LinkedinAdd to PinterestAdd to Email


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login