City Research Online

Design of a 130 MW Axial Turbine Operating with a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Mixture for the SCARABEUS Project

Abdeldayem, A. S., Salah, S. I., Aqel, O. A. , White, M. T. ORCID: 0000-0002-7744-1993 & Sayma, A. I. ORCID: 0000-0003-2315-0004 (2024). Design of a 130 MW Axial Turbine Operating with a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Mixture for the SCARABEUS Project. International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power, 9(1), article number 5. doi: 10.3390/ijtpp9010005


Supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) can be mixed with dopants such as titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), hexafluoro-benzene (C6F6), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) to raise the critical temperature of the working fluid, allowing it to condense at ambient temperatures in dry solar field locations. The resulting transcritical power cycles have lower compression work and higher thermal efficiency. This paper presents the aerodynamic flow path design of a utility-scale axial turbine operating with an 80–20% molar mix of CO2 and SO2. The preliminary design is obtained using a mean line turbine design method based on the Aungier loss model, which considers both mechanical and rotor dynamic criteria. Furthermore, steady-state 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are set up using the k-ω SST turbulence model, and blade shape optimisation is carried out to improve the preliminary design while maintaining acceptable stress levels. It was found that increasing the number of stages from 4 to 14 increased the total-to-total efficiency by 6.3% due to the higher blade aspect ratio, which reduced the influence of secondary flow losses, as well as the smaller tip diameter, which minimised the tip clearance losses. The final turbine design had a total-to-total efficiency of 92.9%, as predicted by the CFD results, with a maximum stress of less than 260 MPa and a mass flow rate within 1% of the intended cycle’s mass flow rate. Optimum aerodynamic performance was achieved with a 14-stage design where the hub radius and the flow path length are 310 mm and 1800 mm, respectively. Off-design analysis showed that the turbine could operate down to 88% of the design reduced mass flow rate with a total-to-total efficiency of 80%.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2024 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC-ND) license (
Publisher Keywords: axial turbine; supercritical carbon dioxide; mean line design; CFD; aerodynamic design
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Departments: School of Science & Technology
School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
[thumbnail of ijtpp-09-00005-v2.pdf]
Text - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

Download (6MB) | Preview


Add to AnyAdd to TwitterAdd to FacebookAdd to LinkedinAdd to PinterestAdd to Email


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login