City Research Online

Development and Analysis of a Multi-Wavelength Near-Infrared Sensor for Monitoring Skin Hydration and Validation Using Monte Carlo Simulation

Gidado, I., Al-Halawani, R., Qassem, M. & Kyriacou, P. ORCID: 0000-0002-2868-485X (2024). Development and Analysis of a Multi-Wavelength Near-Infrared Sensor for Monitoring Skin Hydration and Validation Using Monte Carlo Simulation. Photonic Sensors, 14(3), article number 240306. doi: 10.1007/s13320-024-0719-z


The monitoring of an individual’s hydration levels is a vital measurement required for the maintenance of a healthy skin barrier function as well as the avoidance of dehydration. The current commercial devices for this measure are typically based on electrical methodologies, such as capacitance, which allows for the extraction of skin hydration using the ionic balance deviations in the stratum corneum. The use of optical-based methods such as near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been recently explored for the measurement of skin hydration. Optical approaches have the ability to penetrate deeper into the skin layers and provide detailed information on the optical properties of present water bands. This paper presents the development of a multi-wavelength optical sensor and its capability of assessing skin hydration in an in vitro experiment utilizing porcine skin. Regression analysis of the results showed to be in line with standard reference measurements (R2 CV=0.952257), validating the accuracy of the developed sensor in measuring dermal water content. A Monte Carlo model of the human skin was also developed and simulated to predict the optical sensor’s performance at variable water concentrations. This model serves as a tool for validating the sensor measurement accuracy. The output from this model gave a standard expectation of the device, which agreed with trends seen in the in vitro work. This research strongly suggests that non-invasive (wearable) NIR based sensors could be used for the comprehensive assessment of skin hydration.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Publisher Keywords: Skin hydration, NIRS, optical sensor, biosensors, wearables, Monte Carlo simulation, 0205 Optical Physics, 0906 Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 1007 Nanotechnology, 4009 Electronics, sensors and digital hardware, 5102 Atomic, molecular and optical physics
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HB Economic Theory
Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Q Science > QM Human anatomy
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine
Departments: School of Science & Technology
School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
[thumbnail of s13320-024-0719-z.pdf]
Text - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution International Public License 4.0.

Download (1MB) | Preview


Add to AnyAdd to TwitterAdd to FacebookAdd to LinkedinAdd to PinterestAdd to Email


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login