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The two-year impact of first generation protease inhibitor based antiretroviral therapy (PI-ART) on health-related quality of life

Eriksson, L. E., Bratt, G. A., Sandström, E. & Nordström, G. (2005). The two-year impact of first generation protease inhibitor based antiretroviral therapy (PI-ART) on health-related quality of life. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 3(1), article number 32. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-3-32


Background: Protease inhibitor based antiretroviral therapy (PI-ART) was introduced in 1996 and has greatly reduced the incidence of HIV-related morbidity and mortality in the industrialised world. PI-ART would thus be expected to have a positive effect on health-related quality of life (HRQL). On the other hand, HRQL might be negatively affected by strict adherence requirements as well as by short and long-term adverse effects. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of two years of first generation PI-ART on HRQL in patients with a relatively advanced state of HIV-infection. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate the relation between developments in HRQL and viral response, self-reported adherence and subjective experience of adverse effects in patients with PI-ART.

Methods: HRQL was measured by the Swedish Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWED-QUAL). Sixty-three items from the SWED-QUAL forms two single-item and 11 multi-item dimension scales. For this study, two summary SWED-QUAL scores (physical HRQL composite score and emotional HRQL composite score) were created through a data reduction procedure. At the 2-year follow-up measurement (see below), items were added to measure adherence and subjective experience of adverse effects. Demographic and medical data were obtained from specific items in the questionnaires and from the medical files. Seventy-two patients who were among the first to receive PI-ART (indinavir or ritonavir based) responded to the questionnaire before the start of PI-ART. Of these, 54 responded to the same instrument after two years of treatment (13 had died, four had changed clinic and one did not receive the questionnaire).

Results: The main findings were that the emotional HRQL deteriorated during two years of PI-ART, while the physical HRQL remained stable. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that experience of adverse effects contributed most to the deterioration of emotional HRQL.

Conclusion: In this sample of patients with relatively advanced state of HIV-infection, our data suggested that a negative development of physical HRQL had been interrupted by the treatment and that the emotional dimension of HRQL deteriorated during two years after start of PI-ART. Subjective experience of adverse effects made a major contribution to the decrease in emotional HRQL. The results underline the importance of including HRQL measures in the evaluation of new life prolonging therapies.

Publication Type: Article
Publisher Keywords: Adult, Aged, Drug Therapy, Combination, Female, HIV Infections, HIV Protease Inhibitors, Humans, Indinavir, Male, Middle Aged, Patient Compliance, Quality of Life, Questionnaires, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, Ritonavir, Sampling Studies, Sickness Impact Profile, Sweden, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome
Subjects: R Medicine > RT Nursing
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Nursing
SWORD Depositor:
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