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Imperfect Sound Forever: Loudness Wars, Listening Formations and the History of Sound Reproduction

Devine, K. (2013). Imperfect Sound Forever: Loudness Wars, Listening Formations and the History of Sound Reproduction. Popular Music, 32(2), pp. 159-176. doi: 10.1017/S0261143013000032


The purpose of this paper is to provide some historical perspective on the so-called loudness war. Critics of the loudness war maintain that the average volume level of popular music recordings has increased dramatically since the proliferation of digital technology in the 1980s, and that this increase has had detrimental effects on sound quality and the listening experience. My point is not to weigh in on this debate, but to suggest that the issue of loudness in sound recording and playback can be traced back much earlier than the 1980s. In fact, loudness has been a source of pleasure, a target of criticism, and an engine of technological change since the very earliest days of commercial sound reproduction. Looking at the period between the turn-of-the-century format feud to the arrival of electrical amplification in the 1920s, I situate the loudness war within a longer historical trajectory, and demonstrate a variety of ways in which loudness and volume have been controversial issues in – and constitutive elements of – the history of sound reproduction. I suggest that the loudness war can be understood in relation to a broader cultural history of volume.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This article has been accepted for publication and has appeared in a revised form, subsequent to peer review and/or editorial input by Cambridge University Press, in Popular Music, published by Cambridge University Press. Copyright, Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Subjects: M Music and Books on Music
Departments: City, University of London (-2022) > School of Arts & Social Sciences
School of Arts & Social Sciences
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