City Research Online

Age- and stereovision-dependent eye-hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity

Grant, S., Suttle, C. M., Melmoth, D. R. , Conway, M. L. & Sloper, J. J. (2014). Age- and stereovision-dependent eye-hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 55(9), pp. 5687-5701. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-14745


Purpose: To examine factors contributing to eye-hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and impaired stereovision.

Methods: Participants were 55 anisometropic or strabismic children aged 5.0-9.25 years with different degrees of amblyopia and abnormal binocularity along with 28 age-matched visually-normal controls. Pilot data were obtained from 4 additional patients studied longitudinally at different treatment stages. Movements of the preferred hand were recorded using a 3D motion-capture system while subjects reached-to-precision grasp objects (2 sizes, 3 locations) under binocular, dominant eye and amblyopic/non-sighting eye conditions. Kinematic and 'error' performance measures were quantified and compared by viewing condition and subject group using ANOVA, stepwise regression and correlation analyses.

Results: Movements of the younger (age 5-6) amblyopes (n=30) were much slower, particularly in the final approach to the objects, and contained more spatial errors in reaching (~x1.25-1.75) and grasping (~x1.75-2.25) under all three views (p<0.05) than their age-matched controls (n=13). Amblyopia severity was the main contributor to their slower movements with absent stereovision a secondary factor and the unique determinant of their increased error-rates. Older (age 7-9) amblyopes (n=25) spent longer contacting the objects before lifting them (p=0.015) compared to their matched controls (n=15), with absence of stereovision still solely related to increases in reach and grasp errors, although these occurred less frequently than in younger patients. Pilot prospective data supported these findings by showing positive treatment-related associations between improved stereovision and reach-to-grasp performance.

Publication Type: Article
Subjects: R Medicine > RE Ophthalmology
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Optometry & Visual Sciences
SWORD Depositor:
[thumbnail of i1552-5783-55-9-5687.pdf]
Text - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

Download (893kB) | Preview


Add to AnyAdd to TwitterAdd to FacebookAdd to LinkedinAdd to PinterestAdd to Email


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login