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The use of the Kalman filter in the automated segmentation of EIT lung images

Zifan, A., Liatsis, P. & Chapman, B. E. (2013). The use of the Kalman filter in the automated segmentation of EIT lung images. Physiological Measurement, 34(6), e671. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/34/6/671


In this paper, we present a new pipeline for the fast and accurate segmentation of impedance images of the lungs using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). EIT is an emerging, promising, non-invasive imaging modality that produces real-time, low spatial but high temporal resolution images of impedance inside a body. Recovering impedance itself constitutes a nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem, therefore the problem is usually linearized, which produces impedance-change images, rather than static impedance ones. Such images are highly blurry and fuzzy along object boundaries. We provide a mathematical reasoning behind the high suitability of the Kalman filter when it comes to segmenting and tracking conductivity changes in EIT lung images. Next, we use a two-fold approach to tackle the segmentation problem. First, we construct a global lung shape to restrict the search region of the Kalman filter. Next, we proceed with augmenting the Kalman filter by incorporating an adaptive foreground detection system to provide the boundary contours for the Kalman filter to carry out the tracking of the conductivity changes as the lungs undergo deformation in a respiratory cycle. The proposed method has been validated by using performance statistics such as misclassified area, and false positive rate, and compared to previous approaches. The results show that the proposed automated method can be a fast and reliable segmentation tool for EIT imaging.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in Physiological Measurement. The publisher is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The Version of Record is available online at
Publisher Keywords: EIT; ill-posed problems; impedance; regularization; segmentation; Kalman filter
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
School of Science & Technology > Engineering > Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Text - Accepted Version
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