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The Rumsfeld Effect: The unknown unknown

Hampton, J. A., Aina, B, Mathias Andersson, J , Mirza, HZ & Parmar, S (2012). The Rumsfeld Effect: The unknown unknown. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory & Cognition, 38(2), pp. 340-355. doi: 10.1037/a0025376


A set of studies tested whether people can use awareness of ignorance to provide enhanced test consistency over time if they are allowed to place uncertain items into a “don’t know” category. For factual knowledge this did occur, but for a range of other forms of knowledge relating to conceptual knowledge and personal identity, no such effect was seen. Known unknowns would appear to be largely restricted to factual kinds of knowledge.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright APA 2012. This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record.
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Psychology
SWORD Depositor:
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