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The characterisation of diesel nozzle flow using high speed imaging of elastic light scattering

Lockett, R. D., Liverani, L., Thaker, D. , Jeshani, M. & Tait, N. P. (2013). The characterisation of diesel nozzle flow using high speed imaging of elastic light scattering. Fuel, 106, pp. 605-616. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2012.10.065


Two identical, conventional six-hole, valve-covered orifice (VCO) diesel injectors have been modified in order to provide optical access to the region below the needle, and the nozzle-flow passages. This has been achieved through the removal of the metal tips, and their replacement with transparent acrylic tips of identical geometry.

These two identical injectors were employed in order to offer comparability between the measurements. One of them had a dark, anodised inner surface at the base, while the other had a silvered inner surface at the base. Elastic scattering of incident white light from the internal cavitating flow inside the nozzle holes of the optically accessible diesel injector tips was captured on a high-speed electronic camera. The optical image data was obtained for three injector rail pressures ranging from 200 bar to 400 bar, and for five diesel fuels of varying density, viscosity, and distillation profile, in order to identify variations in cavitation flow behaviour inside the nozzle hole passages.

A set of mean time-resolved diesel fuel flow images were obtained from 30 successive fuel injection pulses, for each operating condition, for each injector. The mean cavitation image occurring in the nozzle holes was converted to the mean proportion of nozzle hole area producing cavitation-induced optical scattering. The mean normalised area images were then analysed, and were able to demonstrate the anticipated inverse relationship between injected fuel mass and cavitation volume fraction (indicated by mean normalised area), and the effect of fuel viscosity and distillation profile on cavitation volume fraction (again indicated by mean normalised area).

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2013, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Publisher Keywords: Diesel; Cavitation; Injection; Imaging
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
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