City Research Online

On the formation of string cavitation inside fuel injectors

Reid, B. A., Gavaises, M., Mitroglou, N. , Hargrave, G. K., Garner, C. P., Long, E. J. & McDavid, R. M. (2014). On the formation of string cavitation inside fuel injectors. Experiments in Fluids, 55(1), article number 1662. doi: 10.1007/s00348-013-1662-8


The formation of vortex or ‘string’ cavitation has been visualised in the flow upstream of the injection hole inlet of an automotive-sized optical diesel fuel injector nozzle operating at pressures up to 2,000 bar. Three different nozzle geometries and three-dimensional flow simulations have been employed to describe how, for two adjacent nozzle holes, their relative positions influenced the formation and hole-to-hole interaction of the observed string cavitation vortices. Each hole was shown to contain two counter-rotating vortices: the first extending upstream on axis with the nozzle hole into the nozzle sac volume and the second forming a single ‘bridging’ string linked to the adjacent hole. Steady-state and transient fuel injection conditions were shown to produce significantly different nozzle-flow characteristics with regard to the formation and interaction of these vortices in the geometries tested, with good agreement between the experimental and simulation results being achieved. The study further confirms that the visualised vortices do not cavitate themselves but act as carriers of gas-phase components within the injector flow.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: The final publication is available at Springer via
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
[thumbnail of On the formation of string cavitation inside fuel injectors-Final Revision.pdf]
Text - Draft Version
Download (822kB) | Preview


Add to AnyAdd to TwitterAdd to FacebookAdd to LinkedinAdd to PinterestAdd to Email


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login