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Measuring Uncertainty in Games: Design and Preliminary Validation

Power, C., Denisova, A., Papaioannou, T. & Cairns, P. (2017). Measuring Uncertainty in Games: Design and Preliminary Validation. In: Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. (pp. 2839-2845). New York, USA: ACM Press. doi: 10.1145/3027063.3053215


Uncertainty is an important element of game play, which is widely believed to act as a precondition for player experience (PX). To investigate the concept and examine its relation to other PX concepts, we should be able to measure it. We present the design and preliminary results of the validation of the Player Uncertainty in Games (PUG) questionnaire. Based on various sources from games user research and work done with regards to searching digital archives, we designed a questionnaire that measures the experience of uncertainty in games. The scale was refined down to 66 items via interviews with players and expert reviews, which was then validated and further refined based on data gathered from gamers in an online survey. The Principal Component Analysis showed high level of internal consistency for the scale and each of its four factors: Disorientation, Exploration, Prospect, and Randomness. This work demonstrates the initial findings towards a validated tool for measuring uncertainty of players in digital games.

Publication Type: Book Section
Additional Information: © 2017, the authors.
Publisher Keywords: Uncertainty; scale; questionnaire; digital games; player experience
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Computer Science
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