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Effect of Composition, Temperature, and Pressure on the Viscosities and Densities of Three Diesel Fuels

Rowane, A. J., Babu, V. M., Rokni, H. B., Moore, J. D., Gavaises, M. ORCID: 0000-0003-0874-8534, Wensing, M., Gupta, A. and McHugh, M. A. (2019). Effect of Composition, Temperature, and Pressure on the Viscosities and Densities of Three Diesel Fuels. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 64(12), pp. 5529-5547. doi: 10.1021/acs.jced.9b00652


In this work, a Rolling-Ball Viscometer/Densimeter is used to measure high-pressure, hightemperature (HPHT) density and viscosity data from 298.2 to 532.6 K and pressures up to 300.0 MPa for three different diesel fuels. The densities and viscosities have combined expanded uncertainties of 0.6% and 2.5%, respectively, with a coverage factor, k = 2. Two of the diesels, Highly Paraffinic (HPF) and Highly Aromatic (HAR), contain a larger paraffinic and aromatic content relative to the others, and are standard engine test fuels. The third is a Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) that resembles an unfinished commercial diesel. Detailed compositional information is also reported for each diesel that provides a basis for interpreting the impact of composition on density and viscosity at high pressures. Both density and viscosity data are correlated to Tait-type equations with uncertainties of 0.6% and 4.0%, respectively. The Tait
equations provide a facile means to compare observed differences in the density-pressure and viscosity-pressure profiles of the three different diesels. Density data are modeled with the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) equation of state (EoS) with pure component parameters calculated representing diesel as a single, pseudo-component only requiring average molecular weight (Mave) and hydrogen to carbon ratio (RH/C) as inputs. Viscosity data are modeled reasonably well using entropy scaling coupled with the PC-SAFT EoS and
information on the diesel Mave and RH/C. The HPHT viscosity data are also modeled reasonably well with Free Volume Theory (FVT) with model parameters correlated to Mave and RH/C.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see
Publisher Keywords: Viscosity, Density, pseudo-component, Diesel
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TL Motor vehicles. Aeronautics. Astronautics
Departments: School of Mathematics, Computer Science & Engineering > Engineering > Mechanical Engineering & Aeronautics
Date available in CRO: 21 Oct 2019 15:47
Date deposited: 21 October 2019
Date of acceptance: 21 October 2019
Date of first online publication: 1 November 2019
Text - Accepted Version
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