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DeepFMRI: End-to-end deep learning for functional connectivity and classification of ADHD using fMRI

Riaz, A., Asad, M., Alonso, E. ORCID: 0000-0002-3306-695X and Slabaugh, G. G. (2020). DeepFMRI: End-to-end deep learning for functional connectivity and classification of ADHD using fMRI. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2019.108506

Abstract

Background: Resting state fMRI has emerged as a popular neuroimaging method for automated recognition and classification of brain disorders. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common brain disorders affecting young children, yet its underlying mechanism is not completely understood and its diagnosis is mainly dependent on behaviour analysis.

New method: In this paper, we propose an end-to-end deep learning architecture to diagnose ADHD. Our aim is to (1) automatically classify a subject as ADHD or healthy control, and (2) demonstrate the importance of functional connectivity to increase classification accuracy and provide interpretable results. The proposed method, called DeepFMRI, is comprised of three sequential networks, namely (1) a feature extractor, (2) a functional connectivity network, and (3) a classification network. The model takes fMRI pre-processed time-series signals as input and outputs a diagnosis, and is trained end-to-end using back-propagation.

Results: Experimental results on the publicly available ADHD-200 dataset demonstrate that this innovative method outperforms previous state-of-the-art. Different imaging sites contributed the data to the ADHD-200 dataset. For the New York University imaging site, our proposed method was able to achieve classification accuracy of 73.1% (specificity 91.6%, sensitivity 65.5%).

Comparison with Existing Methods: In this work, we propose a novel end-to-end deep learning method incorporating functional connectivity for the classification of ADHD. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been explored by existing studies.

Conclusions: The results suggest that the proposed end-to-end deep learning architecture achieves better performance as compared to the other state-of-the-art methods. The findings suggest that the frontal lobe contains the most discriminative power towards the classification of ADHD.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © Elsevier 2019. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Publisher Keywords: functional MRI, Deep Learning, End-to-end network, ADHD
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
Departments: School of Mathematics, Computer Science & Engineering > Computer Science
URI: https://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/23201
[img] Text - Accepted Version
This document is not freely accessible until 27 January 2021 due to copyright restrictions.
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

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