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A Σ-ϒ two-fluid model with dynamic local topology detection: Application to high-speed droplet impact

Nykteri, G., Koukouvinis, P. ORCID: 0000-0002-3945-3707, Avila, S. R. G., Ohl, C-D. and Gavaises, M. ORCID: 0000-0003-0874-8534 (2020). A Σ-ϒ two-fluid model with dynamic local topology detection: Application to high-speed droplet impact. Journal of Computational Physics, doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2019.109225

Abstract

A numerical methodology resolving flow complexities arising from the coexistence of both multi-scale processes and flow regimes is presented. The methodology employs the compressible Navier-Stokes equations of two interpenetrating fluid media using the two-fluid formulation; this allows for compressibility and slip velocity effects to be considered. On-the-fly criteria switching between a sharp and a diffuse interface within the Eulerian-Eulerian framework along with dynamic interface sharpening is developed, based on an advanced local flow topology detection algorithm. The sharp interface regimes with dimensions larger than the grid size are resolved using the VOF method. For the dispersed flow regime, the methodology incorporates an additional transport equation for the surface-mass fraction (Σ-ϒ) for estimating the interface surface area between the two phases. To depict the advantages of the proposed multiscale two-fluid approach, a high-speed water droplet impact case has been examined and evaluated against new experimental data; these refer to a millimetre size droplet impacting a solid dry smooth surface at velocity as high as 150 m/s, which corresponds to a Weber number of ∼7.6×105. Droplet splashing is followed by the formation of highly dispersed secondary cloud of droplets, with sizes ranging from 10−5 mm close to the wall to less than 1 μm forming at the later stages of droplet fragmentation. Additionally, under the investigated impact conditions, compressibility effects dominate the early stages of droplet splashing. A strong shock wave forms and propagates inside the droplet, where transonic Mach numbers occur; local Mach numbers up to 2.5 are observed for the expelled surrounding gas outside the droplet. Relative velocities between the two fluids are also significant; local values on the tip of the injected water film up to 5 times higher than the initial impact velocity are observed. The proposed numerical approach is found to capture relatively accurately the flow phenomena and provide additional information regarding the produced flow structure dimensions, which is not available from the experiment.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2020. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Publisher Keywords: two-fluid model, compressible Navier-Stokes, Σ-ϒ formulation, supersonic flow, adaptive flow topology detection, droplet impact
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Q Science > QC Physics
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Departments: School of Mathematics, Computer Science & Engineering > Engineering > Mechanical Engineering & Aeronautics
URI: https://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/23546
[img] Text - Accepted Version
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