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Factors influencing the recruitment and retention of registered nurses in adult community nursing services: an integrative literature review

Chamanga, E., Dyson, J. ORCID: 0000-0002-0928-0438, Loke, J. & McKeown, E. ORCID: 0000-0002-4183-5376 (2020). Factors influencing the recruitment and retention of registered nurses in adult community nursing services: an integrative literature review. Primary Health Care Research & Development, 21, article number e31. doi: 10.1017/s1463423620000353


Adult community nursing services are evolving around the world in response to government policies and changing patient demographics. Amidst these changes, recruitment and retention of community nursing staff are proving a challenge. An integrative literature review has identified multiple factors that influence nurse retention in adult community nursing with sparse information on recruitment factors. Although factors impacting retention of community nurses have been identified, their generalisability around the world is a challenge as they are context and co-dependent. Indicating the need for this area of study to be explored at a local level, as the same factors present with different findings globally.

To establish factors influencing recruitment and retention of registered nurses in adult community nursing services.

Integrative literature review.

Data sources:
Four electronic databases were searched in August 2019 from January 2008 to December 2018: CINAHL Complete, Web of Science, MEDLINE and PROQUEST. Both qualitative and quantitative studies focusing on factors influencing community nursing recruitment and retention were included.

Review methods:
An integrative literature review methodology by Whittemore and Knafl (The integrative review: updated methodology. Journal of Advanced Nursing 52, 546–553) was followed, supported by Cochrane guidelines on data synthesis and analysis using a narrative synthesis method. The Center for Evidence-Based Management (CEBMa) critical appraisal tools were used for study quality assessment.

Ten papers met the study inclusion criteria. Data synthesis and analysis revealed individual and organisational factors influencing the retention of community nurses with the following three dominant themes: (1) work pressure, (2) working conditions and (3) lack of appreciation by managers.

The review identified context-dependent factors that influence adult community nurses’ retention with limited generalisability. There is a lack of data on factors influencing recruitment into adult community nursing; further research is needed to explore factors affiliated to community nursing recruitment.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.
Publisher Keywords: community nursing; community nurses; integrated literature review; recruitment; retention
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor
R Medicine > RT Nursing
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Nursing
SWORD Depositor:
[thumbnail of Factors_influencing_the_recruitment_and_retention_of_registered_nurses_in_adult_community_nursing_services_an_integrative_literature_review.pdf]
Text - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

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