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Preferential cavitation and friction-induced heating of multi-component Diesel fuel surrogates up to 450MPa

Vidal Roncero, A. ORCID: 0000-0001-8177-518X, Kolovos, K., Gold, M. , Pearson, R., Koukouvinis, P. ORCID: 0000-0002-3945-3707 & Gavaises, M. ORCID: 0000-0003-0874-8534 (2021). Preferential cavitation and friction-induced heating of multi-component Diesel fuel surrogates up to 450MPa. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 166, article number 120744. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.120744


The present work investigates the formation and development of cavitation of a multicomponent Diesel fuel surrogate discharging from a high-pressure fuel injector operating in the range of injection pressures from 60MPa to 450MPa. The compressible form of the Navier-Stokes equations is numerically solved with a density-based solver employing the homogeneous mixture model for accounting the presence of liquid and vapour phases, while turbulence is resolved using a Large Eddy Simulation approximation. Simulations are performed on a tapered heavy-duty Diesel engine injector at a nominal fully-open needle valve lift of 350μm. To account for the effect of extreme fuel pressurisation, two approaches have been followed: (i) a barotropic evolution of density as function of pressure, where thermal effects are not considered and (ii) the inclusion of wall friction-induced and pressurisation thermal effects by solving the energy conservation equation. The PC-SAFT equation of state is utilised to derive thermodynamic property tables for an eight-component surrogate based on a grade no.2 Diesel emissions-certification fuel as function of pressure, temperature, and fuel vapour volume fraction. Moreover, the preferential cavitation of the fuel components within the injector’s hole is predicted by Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium calculations; lighter fuel components are found to cavitate to a greater extent than heavier ones. Results indicate a significant increase of temperature with increasing pressures due to friction-induced heating, leading to a significant increase in the mean vapour pressure of the fuel and an increase of the mass of fuel cavitating, but at the same time to an unprecedented decrease of cavitation volume inside the fuel injector with increasing injection pressure. This has been attributed to the shift of the pressure drop from the feed to the back pressure inside the injection hole orifice as fuel discharges; as injection pressure increases, so does the pressure inside the orifice, confining the location of cavitation formation to a smaller volume attached to the upper part of orifice, thus restricting cavitation growth.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2020. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Publisher Keywords: cavitation, multicomponent, PC-SAFT, Diesel, thermal effects, preferential vaporisation
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TL Motor vehicles. Aeronautics. Astronautics
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
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Text - Accepted Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

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