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Combined visualisation of cavitation and vortical structures in a real-size optical diesel injector

Karathanassis, I. K. ORCID: 0000-0001-9025-2866, Hwang, J., Koukouvinis, P. ORCID: 0000-0002-3945-3707 , Pickett, L. & Gavaises, M. ORCID: 0000-0003-0874-8534 (2021). Combined visualisation of cavitation and vortical structures in a real-size optical diesel injector. Experiments in Fluids, 62(1), doi: 10.1007/s00348-020-03096-1


A high-speed flow visualisation set-up comprising of combined diffuse backlight illumination (DBI) and schlieren imaging has been developed to illustrate the highly transient, two-phase flow arising in a real-size optical fuel injector. The different illumination nature of the two techniques, diffuse and parallel light respectively, allows for the capturing of refractive-index gradients due to the presence of both interfaces and density gradients within the orifice. Hence, the onset of cavitation and secondary-flow motion within the sac and injector hole can be concurrently visualised. Experiments were conducted utilising a diesel injector fitted with a single-hole transparent tip (ECN spray D) at injection pressures of 700–900 bar and ambient pressures in the range of 1–20 bar. High-speed DBI images obtained at 100,000 fps revealed that the orifice, due to its tapered layout, is mildly cavitating with relatively constant cavity sheets arising mainly in regions of manufacturing imperfections. Nevertheless, schlieren images obtained at the same frame rate demonstrated that a multitude of vortices with short lifetimes arise at different scales in the sac and nozzle regions during the entire duration of the injection cycle but the vortices do not necessarily result in phase change. The magnitude and exact location of coherent vortical structures have a measurable influence on the dynamics of the spray emerging downstream the injector outlet, leading to distinct differences in the variation of its cone angle depending on the injection and ambient pressures examined.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2020, The Author(s).
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TL Motor vehicles. Aeronautics. Astronautics
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
[thumbnail of Karathanassis2020_Article_CombinedVisualisationOfCavitat.pdf]
Text - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution International Public License 4.0.

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