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Numerical simulation and experimental validation of cavitating flow in a multi-hole diesel fuel injector

Kumar, A., Ghobadian, A. & Nouri, J. ORCID: 0000-0001-8610-3737 (2021). Numerical simulation and experimental validation of cavitating flow in a multi-hole diesel fuel injector. International Journal of Engine Research, 23(6), pp. 958-973. doi: 10.1177/1468087421998631


This study assesses the predictive capability of the ZGB (Zwart-Gerber-Belamri) cavitation model with the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes), the realizable k-epsilon turbulence model, and compressibility of gas/liquid models for cavitation simulation in a multi-hole fuel injector at different cavitation numbers (CN) for diesel and biodiesel fuels. The prediction results were assessed quantitatively by comparison of predicted velocity profiles with those of measured LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) data. Subsequently, predictions were assessed qualitatively by visual comparison of the predicted void fraction with experimental CCD (Charged Couple Device) recorded images. Both comparisons showed that the model could predict fluid behavior in such a condition with a high level of confidence. Additionally, flow field analysis of numerical results showed the formation of vortices in the injector sac volume. The analysis showed two main types of vortex structures formed. The first kind appeared connecting two adjacent holes and is known as “hole-to-hole” connecting vortices. The second type structure appeared as double “counter-rotating” vortices emerging from the needle wall and entering the injector hole facing it. The use of RANS proved to save significant computational cost and time in predicting the cavitating flow with good accuracy.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License ( which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (
Publisher Keywords: Cavitation simulation, multi-hole diesel fuel injector, compressible flow, CFD, RANS, ZGB, model validation, LDV measurement
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TL Motor vehicles. Aeronautics. Astronautics
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
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