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Fact-Checking Misinformation: Eight Notes on Consensus Reality

Vinhas, O. & Bastos, M. T. ORCID: 0000-0003-0480-1078 (2022). Fact-Checking Misinformation: Eight Notes on Consensus Reality. Journalism Studies, doi: 10.1080/1461670X.2022.2031259


In this study we review the literature on fact-checking and the empirical evidence contending that it can correct prior knowledge and successfully debunk misinformation. We caution against the oversized expectation of policymakers that fact-checks can ward off misinformation and outline eight fundamental problems revolving around epistemology, implementation, bias, efficacy, ambiguity, objectivity, ephemerality, and criticism. We discuss these shortcomings in relation to the reorganization of the fact-checking industry as the linchpin in the fight against misinformation in the United Kingdom, United States, Malaysia, Turkey, and Brazil. The article concludes with a discussion on the extent to which fact-checking may be effective in countering the current misinformation landscape in a context where consensus reality has been super-imposed by individual reality.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an Accepted Manuscript version of the following article, accepted for publication in Journalism Studies. Otávio Vinhas & Marco Bastos (2022) Fact-Checking Misinformation: Eight Notes on Consensus Reality, Journalism Studies. It is deposited under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Publisher Keywords: Fact-checking; Disinformation; Trust; Social media; Bias; Uncertainty
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HM Sociology
P Language and Literature > PN Literature (General)
Departments: School of Policy & Global Affairs > Sociology & Criminology
[img] Text - Accepted Version
This document is not freely accessible until 3 August 2023 due to copyright restrictions.
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial.

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