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Brazilian Cooking Skills Questionnaire evaluation of using/cooking and consumption of fruits and vegetables

Jomori, M. M., Quinaud, R. T., Condrasky, M. D. & Caraher, M. ORCID: 0000-0002-0615-839X (2022). Brazilian Cooking Skills Questionnaire evaluation of using/cooking and consumption of fruits and vegetables. Nutrition, 95, article number 111557. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2021.111557


Young adults are often faced with barriers to cooking their own food. These barriers are associated with poor diet. The aim of this study was to explore the factor structure of the Brazilian Cooking Skills and Healthy Eating Questionnaire (BCSQ) to identify the barriers to cooking, use, and consumption of fruits and vegetables by young adults.

Data were collected from a baseline study with Brazilian university students (N = 767). Forty-eight items from the BCSQ (composed of the following scales: Cooking Attitude, Cooking Behavior, Produce Consumption Self-Efficacy, Cooking Self-Efficacy, Self-Efficacy in Using Cooking Techniques, and Self-Efficacy in Using Fruits, Vegetables, and Seasonings) were submitted to exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (ten fit indexes), and internal consistency reliability evaluation. Multilevel linear regression models were used to analyze variations on the BCSQ dimensions by sex, living arrangements, knowledge of how to cook, location of main meal, and time available for cooking.

The 20-item BCSQ showed good fit indexes. The items based on negative cooking attitudes, frequency of using leftovers, and self-efficacy related to cooking from scratch, using and eating fruits and vegetables were adequate for the evaluation of cooking skills. These items represent and reflect the health dimensions applied to this research. The self-efficacy in using cooking techniques, which was not validated in previous study scale, was excluded due to its dimension.

These results enabled us to shorten the BCSQ, which can be used to evaluate the barriers to cooking among young adults, as well as measuring their healthy eating practices, supporting future research and programs.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2022. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Publisher Keywords: Scale, Nutrition-related measurement, Validity, Food skills, Culinary, Meal preparation
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GF Human ecology. Anthropogeography
H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor
H Social Sciences > HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
T Technology > TX Home economics
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Healthcare Services Research & Management > Food Policy
SWORD Depositor:
[thumbnail of manuscript MMJ reconsideration final version 3.pdf]
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Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

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