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Globalization, cosmopolitanism and leisure rights: The flaws of the Sao Paul declaration

Rojek, C. (2022). Globalization, cosmopolitanism and leisure rights: The flaws of the Sao Paul declaration. Loisir et Société / Society & Leisure, 45(1), pp. 150-162. doi: 10.1080/07053436.2022.2053327


The Brexit vote and the election of Donald Trump in 2016 are widely held to signal the return of protectionism and isolationism in the Anglosphere. This ran counter to the Sao Paulo Declaration issued by the World Leisure and Recreation Association (1998). For nearly twenty years, the Declaration has been at the axis of debates on the preferred trajectory of leisure relations in the West. The Brexit and Trump election campaigns seized upon the undesirable consequences of globalization i.e. job losses and the contraction of real wages caused by out-sourcing, immigration, the threats to ‘the whole way’ of national life etc. The campaigns exposed globalization as an uneven process, that primarily benefits the elite, and cosmopolitanism as a patchwork process. The paper examines the meaning of globalization and cosmopolitanism, and their shortfalls, in the Sao Paulo Declaration. It moves on to consider the argument made by some writers in Leisure Studies that volunteerism is an antidote to the worst consequences of globalization.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way
Publisher Keywords: globalization; Sao Paulo Declaration; inequality; poverty; crisis
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HM Sociology
H Social Sciences > HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
J Political Science > JN Political institutions (Europe)
J Political Science > JZ International relations
Departments: School of Policy & Global Affairs > Sociology & Criminology
SWORD Depositor:
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