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Experimental investigation into the potential of using a shallow ground-cooled condenser in Lebanon

Mahmoud, M., Alkhedher, M., Ramadan, M. , Pullen, K. R. ORCID: 0000-0001-8501-9226, Olabi, A-G. & Naher, S. ORCID: 0000-0003-2047-5807 (2022). Experimental investigation into the potential of using a shallow ground-cooled condenser in Lebanon. Energy Conversion and Management, 264, article number 115729. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2022.115729


The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of using shallow geothermal energy in Lebanon for cooling a power cycle. The study includes ground temperature measurement, operating system management, and pressure drop assessment. Temperatures were monitored at six positions underground reaching to a depth of 2 m in Bekaa-Lebanon during the whole of 2020. The temperature sensors were placed at depths of 0.3, 0.6, 1, 1.3, 1.6, and 2 m underground. At 2 m depth, the ground temperature showed high stability with an annual temperature difference of 7 °C, while that of high and low ambient temperatures were 40 °C and 33 °C, respectively. Based on the comparison between ambient and ground temperatures, the ground cooling system can operate 207 days/year partially with full operations of 51 days. This shows that shallow geothermal energy has a great potential to activate a ground-based cooling system in this region. However, to avoid heat accumulation, use of another heat exchanger is recommended to support the ground cooling system. This heat exchanger can also provide coolth compensation when the power cycle is turned off. The pressure drop inside the heat exchangers was found to be highly significant, hence, it was essential to add an intermediate water loop between the power cycle and the ground loop.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2022. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Publisher Keywords: Shallow geothermal energy, Ground temperature, Ground heat exchanger, Ground-cooled condenser, Power generation
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
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Text - Accepted Version
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