City Research Online

The Impact of Business Improvement Districts on Crime

Faggio, G. ORCID: 0000-0001-9766-859X (2022). The Impact of Business Improvement Districts on Crime (22/03). London, UK: Department of Economics, City, University of London.


This study evaluates the impact of Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) on crime using a novel data set on the total number of BIDs established in England and Wales between 2012-2017. Results indicate that BID areas are, on average, affected by higher levels of crime than other commercial areas, but they experience a drop of 10-11 crimes per quarter following BID formation. The reduction in crime is stronger for shoplifting, anti-social behaviour and public order-related crimes. Effects depends on the intensity of the approach adopted as well as on the amount of resources devoted to crime prevention. The study also provides evidence of diversion effects. As crime declines in BID areas, criminal activity diverts in neighboring commercial areas. Diversion effects are smaller than deterrence effects so that aggregated crime declines.

Publication Type: Monograph (Discussion Paper)
Additional Information: Copyright, the authors, 2022.
Publisher Keywords: urban regeneration policy; local government policy; crime
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HC Economic History and Conditions
H Social Sciences > HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
J Political Science > JS Local government Municipal government
Departments: School of Policy & Global Affairs > Economics
School of Policy & Global Affairs > Economics > Discussion Paper Series
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