City Research Online

Effect of Starch Type and Pre-Treatment on the Properties of Gelatin-Starch Foams Produced by Mechanical Foaming

Martin Torrejon, V. ORCID: 0000-0003-1367-2853, Song, H., Wu, B. , Luo, G. & Song, J. (2023). Effect of Starch Type and Pre-Treatment on the Properties of Gelatin-Starch Foams Produced by Mechanical Foaming. Polymers, 15(7), article number 1775. doi: 10.3390/polym15071775


Incorporating biopolymers in packaging foams can contribute to a more circular packaging system, utilizing renewable and compostable materials. Gelatin, with its favorable physicochemical properties, allows for producing gelatin foams via mechanical foaming, a well-established and low-investment process. To improve foam properties, starch can be added to the gelatin formulation. However, the variability in the properties of starch powders can impact the polymer blend and, consequently, the properties of the dry foam. This study aimed to investigate the impact of different starch powders from different botanical origins (tapioca and corn) and treatments (native or pregelatinized) on the properties of gelatin-starch foams produced by mechanical foaming. The study successfully produced foams with densities of approximately 45-50 kg/m3 and compression properties comparable to EPS (expanded polystyrene) foams. The starch type and pre-treatment significantly influenced the properties of the foam. Pregelatinized starches exhibited slightly higher densities due to lower foamability caused by higher viscosity. Using starch exhibiting total loss of birefringence led to denser foams with greater compression properties than those with starch with a certain degree of crystallinity remaining. Therefore, selecting the appropriate starch type is crucial when developing starch-based materials to ensure optimal material and processing properties align with application requirements.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Publisher Keywords: starch-based bioplastics; gelatin-based cellular solids; bio-based packaging foams; mechanical foaming of biopolymers; renewable packaging; cushioning
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor
Q Science > QD Chemistry
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Healthcare Services Research & Management
SWORD Depositor:
[thumbnail of polymers-15-01775.pdf]
Text - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution International Public License 4.0.

Download (6MB) | Preview


Add to AnyAdd to TwitterAdd to FacebookAdd to LinkedinAdd to PinterestAdd to Email


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login