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Can children measure their own vision? A comparison of three new contrast sensitivity tests

Crossland, M. D., Dekker, T. M., Dahlmann-Noor, A. & Jones, P. R. ORCID: 0000-0001-7672-8397 (2023). Can children measure their own vision? A comparison of three new contrast sensitivity tests. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt, 44(1), pp. 5-16. doi: 10.1111/opo.13230


To investigate the feasibility of children measuring their own contrast sensitivity using a range of tablet- and paper-based tests.

Forty children aged 5–15 years with amblyopia (N = 10), bilateral vision impairment (N = 10) or good vision (N = 20) measured their own vision on a screen-based optotype test (Manifold), a gamified vision test (PopCSF) and a paper-based test (Spotchecks) in a laboratory with minimal supervision. Completion rate, test–retest repeatability, test duration and participants' preferences were recorded for each test.

Most participants (36/40) were able to perform all three tests. All tests were correlated with clinically measured visual acuity and contrast sensitivity (p < 0.001). The 95% coefficient of repeatability was 0.30 dB for Manifold, 0.29 dB for PopCSF and 0.13 dB for Spotchecks. All tests differentiated between children with reduced contrast sensitivity and control participants. PopCSF and Spotchecks were also able to differentiate between children with amblyopia and those with good vision. Median test time was 152, 130 and 202 s for Manifold, PopCSF and Spotchecks, respectively. Twenty-two participants preferred the PopCSF test, 10 preferred Spotchecks and 6 preferred Manifold. Thirty-nine out of the 40 children (98%) said they would measure their own vision at home using at least one of these tests every month.

Children and young people can test their own contrast sensitivity with repeatable results. Of these three tests, the most repeatable was Spotchecks, the quickest was PopCSF and participants' favourite was PopCSF. Nearly all of the participants said they would be willing to use at least one of the three tests at home.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.© 2023 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of College of Optometrists.
Publisher Keywords: amblyopia, contrast sensitivity, home monitoring, low vision
Subjects: R Medicine > RE Ophthalmology
R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Optometry & Visual Sciences
SWORD Depositor:
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