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Spray process of multi-component gasoline surrogate fuel under ECN Spray G conditions

Hwang, J., Karathanassis, I. K. ORCID: 0000-0001-9025-2866, Koukouvinis, P. , Nguyen, T., Tagliante, F., Pickett, L. M., Sforzo, B. A. & Powell, C. F. (2024). Spray process of multi-component gasoline surrogate fuel under ECN Spray G conditions. International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 174, article number 104753. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2024.104753


As modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines utilize sophisticated injection strategies, a detailed understanding of the air-fuel mixing process is crucial to further improvements in engine emission and fuel economy. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of the spray process of single-component iso-octane (IC8) and multi-component gasoline surrogate E00 (36% n-pentane, 46% iso-octane, and 18% n-undecane, by volume) fuels was conducted using an Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G injector. High-speed extinction, schlieren, and microscopy imaging campaigns were carried out under engine-like ambient conditions in a spray vessel. Experimental results including liquid/vapor penetration, local liquid volume fraction, droplet size, and projected liquid film on the nozzle tip were compared under ECN G1 (573 K, 3.5 kg/m³), G2 (333 K, 0.5 kg/ m³), and G3 (333 K, 1.01 kg/ m³) conditions. In addition to the experiments, preferential evaporation process of the E00 fuel was elucidated by Large-Eddy Simulations (LES). The three-dimensional liquid volume fraction measurement enabled by the computed tomographic reconstruction showed substantial plume collapse for E00 under the G2 and G3 conditions having wider plume growth and plume-to-plume interaction due to the fuel high vapor pressure. The CFD simulation of E00 showed an inhomogeneity in the way fuel components vaporized, with more volatile components carried downstream in the spray after the end of injection. The high vapor pressure of E00 also results in ~4 μm smaller average droplet diameter than IC8, reflecting a higher rate of initial vaporization even though the final boiling point temperature is higher. Consistent with high vapor pressure, E00 had a wider plume cone angle and enhanced interaction with the wall to cover the entire surface of the nozzle tip in a film. However, the liquid fuel underwent faster evaporation, so the final projected tip wetting area was smaller than the IC8 under the flash-boiling condition.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2024. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Publisher Keywords: Gasoline direct injection (GDI); Multi-component surrogate; Spray; Plume collapse; Preferential evaporation
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TL Motor vehicles. Aeronautics. Astronautics
Departments: School of Science & Technology
School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
[thumbnail of Manuscript_revised_09Dec2023.pdf] Text - Accepted Version
This document is not freely accessible until 5 February 2025 due to copyright restrictions.
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

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