City Research Online

The eyes of the deep diving hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) enhance sensitivity to ultraviolet light

Hogg, C., Neveu, M., Folkow, L., Stokkan, K-A., Kam, J. H., Douglas, R. H. and Jeffery, G. (2015). The eyes of the deep diving hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) enhance sensitivity to ultraviolet light. Biology Open, 4, pp. 812-818. doi: 10.1242/bio.011304

Abstract

The mammalian visual range is approximately 400-700nm, although recent evidence suggests varying ultraviolet (UV) extensions in diverse terrestrial species. UV sensitivity may have advantages in the dim, blue light shifted environment experienced by submerged marine mammals. It may also be advantageous when seals are hauled out as UV is reflected by snow and ice but absorbed by fur, enhancing visual contrast. Here we show that the pelagic hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) has a highly UV permissive cornea and lens. Seals like other carnivores have a tapetum lucidum (TL) reflecting light back through the retina increasing sensitivity. The TL in this seal is unusual being white and covering almost the entire retina unlike that in other carnivores. Spectral reflectance from its surface selectively increases the relative UV/blue components >10 times than other wavelengths. Retinal architecture is consistent with a high degree of convergence. Enhanced UV from a large TL surface with a high degree of retinal convergence will increase sensitivity at a cost to acuity. UV electrophysiological retina responses were only obtained to dim, rod mediated stimuli, with no evidence of cone input. As physiological measurements of threshold sensitivity are log units higher than those for psychophysical detection, these seals are likely to be more UV sensitive than our results imply. Hence, UV reflections from the TL will afford increased sensitivity in dim oceanic environments.

Publication Type: Article
Publisher Keywords: Ultraviolet, Retina, Enhanced Contrast, Hooded Seal
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history
R Medicine > RE Ophthalmology
Departments: School of Health Sciences > Optometry & Visual Science
URI: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/11849
[img]
Preview
Text - Accepted Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0.

Download (2MB) | Preview

Export

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login