Comparative evaluation of phase-change mechanisms for the prediction of flashing flows

Karathanassis, I. K., Koukouvinis, P. & Gavaises, M. (2017). Comparative evaluation of phase-change mechanisms for the prediction of flashing flows. International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 95, pp. 257-270. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2017.06.006

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Abstract

A numerical study is presented, evaluating in a comparative manner the capability of various mass-transfer rate models to predict the evolution of flashing flow in various geometrical configurations. The examined models comprise phase-change mechanisms based on the kinetic theory of gases (Hertz–Knudsen equation), thermodynamic-equilibrium conditions (HEM), bubble-dynamics considerations using the Zwart-Gerber-Belamri model (ZGB), as well as semi-empirical correlations calibrated specifically for flash boiling (HRM). Benchmark geometrical layouts, i.e a converging-diverging nozzle, an abruptly contracting (throttle) nozzle and a highly-pressurized pipe, for which experimental data are available in the literature have been employed for the validation of the numerical predictions. Consideration on additional aspects associated with phase-change processes, such as the distribution of activated nucleation sites, as well as the deviation from thermodynamic-equilibrium conditions have also been taken into account. The numerical results have demonstrated that the onset of flashing flow in all cases is associated with the occurrence of compressible flow phenomena, such as flow choking at the constriction location and expansion downstream, accompanied by the formation of shockwaves. Phase-change models based on the kinetic theory of gases produced more accurate predictions for all the cases investigated, while the validity of the HRM and ZGB models was found to be situational. Furthermore, it has been established that the inter-dependence between intrinsic physical factors associated with flash boiling, such as the nucleation-site density and the phase-change rate, has a significant, yet not clearly distinguishable influence on the two-phase flow characteristics.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2017. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Uncontrolled Keywords: Fuel injectors, Two-phase flow, Thermodynamic non-equilibrium, Kinetic theory of gases, Homogeneous relaxation model, Bubble dynamics
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: School of Engineering & Mathematical Sciences > Engineering
URI: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/18268

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