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Some binocular advantages for planning reach, but not grasp, components of prehension

Grant, S. ORCID: 0000-0001-6141-538X and Conway, M. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-5016-0529 (2019). Some binocular advantages for planning reach, but not grasp, components of prehension. Experimental Brain Research, doi: 10.1007/s00221-019-05503-4

Abstract

Proficient (fast, accurate, precise) hand actions for reaching-to-grasp 3D objects are known to benefit significantly from the use of binocular vision compared to one eye alone. We examined whether these binocular advantages derive from increased reliability in encoding the goal object's properties for feedforward planning of prehension movements or from enhanced feedback mediating their online control. Adult participants reached for, precision grasped and lifted cylindrical table-top objects (two sizes, 2 distances) using binocular vision or only their dominant/sighting eye or their non-dominant eye to program and fully execute their movements or using each of the three viewing conditions only to plan their reach-to-grasp during a 1 s preview, with vision occluded just before movement onset. Various kinematic measures of reaching and grasping proficiency, including corrective error rates, were quantified and compared by view, feedback and object type. Some significant benefits of binocular over monocular vision when they were just available for pre-movement planning were retained for the reach regardless of target distance, including higher peak velocities, straighter paths and shorter low velocity approach times, although these latter were contaminated by more velocity corrections and by poorer coordination with object contact. By contrast, virtually all binocular advantages for grasping, including improvements in peak grip aperture scaling, the accuracy and precision of digit placements at object contact and shorter grip application times preceding the lift, were eliminated with no feedback available, outcomes that were influenced by the object's size. We argue that vergence cues can improve the reliability of binocular internal representations of object distance for the feedforward programming of hand transport, whereas the major benefits of binocular vision for enhancing grasping performance derive exclusively from its continuous presence online.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © The Author(s) 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Publisher Keywords: Visuomotor behaviour, Stereopsis, Monocular vision, Internal model, Visual feedback, Online control
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
R Medicine > RE Ophthalmology
Departments: School of Health Sciences > Optometry & Visual Science
URI: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/21935
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