Bertolino, A. & Strigini, L. (1996). On the use of testability measures for dependability assessment. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 22(2), pp. 97108. doi: 10.1109/32.485220

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Abstract
Program “testability” is informally, the probability that a program will fail under test if it contains at least one fault. When a dependability assessment has to be derived from the observation of a series of failure free test executions (a common need for software subject to “ultra high reliability” requirements), measures of testability canin theorybe used to draw inferences on program correctness. We rigorously investigate the concept of testability and its use in dependability assessment, criticizing, and improving on, previously published results. We give a general descriptive model of program execution and testing, on which the different measures of interest can be defined. We propose a more precise definition of program testability than that given by other authors, and discuss how to increase testing effectiveness without impairing program reliability in operation. We then study the mathematics of using testability to estimate, from test results: the probability of program correctness and the probability of failures. To derive the probability of program correctness, we use a Bayesian inference procedure and argue that this is more useful than deriving a classical “confidence level”. We also show that a high testability is not an unconditionally desirable property for a program. In particular, for programs complex enough that they are unlikely to be completely fault free, increasing testability may produce a program which will be less trustworthy, even after successful testing
Item Type:  Article 

Additional Information:  © 1996 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other users, including reprinting/ republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted components of this work in other works. 
Uncontrolled Keywords:  Bayesian inference, error, fault, failure, reliability assessment, software testing, testability, test oracle, ultrahigh reliability, FAULTTOLERANT SOFTWARE, FAILURE 
Subjects:  Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA76 Computer software 
Divisions:  School of Informatics > Centre for Software Reliability 
URI:  http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/260 
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