Thermodynamic Bethe ansatz for non-equilibrium steady states: exact energy current and fluctuations in integrable QFT

Castro-Alvaredo, O., Chen, Y., Doyon, B. & Hoogeveen, M. (2014). Thermodynamic Bethe ansatz for non-equilibrium steady states: exact energy current and fluctuations in integrable QFT. Journals of Statistical Mechanics [JSTAT], doi: 10.1088/1742-5468/2014/03/P03011

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We evaluate the exact energy current and scaled cumulant generating function (related to the large-deviation function) in non-equilibrium steady states with energy flow, in any integrable model of relativistic quantum field theory (IQFT) with diagonal scattering. Our derivations are based on various recent results of Bernard and Doyon. The steady states are built by connecting homogeneously two infinite halves of the system thermalized at different temperatures Tl, Tr, and waiting for a long time. We evaluate the current J(Tl, Tr) using the exact QFT density matrix describing these non-equilibrium steady states and using Zamolodchikov's method of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA). The scaled cumulant generating function is obtained from the extended fluctuation relations which hold in integrable models. We verify our formula in particular by showing that the conformal field theory (CFT) result is obtained in the high-temperature limit. We analyze numerically our non-equilibrium steady-state TBA equations for three models: the sinh-Gordon model, the roaming trajectories model, and the sine-Gordon model at a particular reflectionless point. Based on the numerics, we conjecture that an infinite family of non-equilibrium c-functions, associated with the scaled cumulants, can be defined, which we interpret physically. We study the full scaled distribution function and find that it can be described by a set of independent Poisson processes. Finally, we show that the 'additivity' property of the current, which is known to hold in CFT and was proposed to hold more generally, does not hold in general IQFT—that is, J(Tl, Tr) is not of the form f(Tl) − f(Tr).

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Quantum transport, integrable quantum field theory, thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, large deviations in non-equilibrium systems
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics
Divisions: School of Engineering & Mathematical Sciences > Department of Mathematical Science

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