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Spray characteristics of a multi-hole injector for direct-injection gasoline engines

Mitroglou, N., Nouri, J. M., Gavaises, M. & Arcoumanis, C. (2006). Spray characteristics of a multi-hole injector for direct-injection gasoline engines. International Journal of Engine Research, 7(3), pp. 255-270. doi: 10.1243/146808705x62922


The sprays from a high-pressure multi-hole nozzle injected into a constant-volume chamber have been visualized and quantified in terms of droplet velocity and diameter with a two-component phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) system at injection pressures up to 200 bar and chamber pressures varying from atmospheric to 12 bar. The flow characteristics within the injection system were quantified by means of a fuel injection equipment (FIE) one-dimensional model, providing the injection rate and the injection velocity in the presence of hole cavitation, by an in-house three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model providing the detailed flow distribution for various combinations of nozzle hole configurations, and by a fuel atomization model giving estimates of the droplet size very near to the nozzle exit. The overall spray angle relative to the axis of the injector was found to be almost independent of injection and chamber pressure, a significant advantage relative to swirl pressure atomizers. Temporal droplet velocities were found to increase sharply at the start of injection and then to remain unchanged during the main part of injection, before decreasing rapidly towards the end of injection. The spatial droplet velocity profiles were jet-like at all axial locations, with the local velocity maximum found at the centre of the jet. Within the measured range, the effect of injection pressure on droplet size was rather small while the increase in chamber pressure from atmospheric to 12 bar resulted in much smaller droplet velocities, by up to four-fold, and larger droplet sizes by up to 40 per cent.

Publication Type: Article
Publisher Keywords: gasoline direct-injection engines, high-pressure multi-hole injectors, phase Doppler anemometry, nozzle flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, atomization modelling
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
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