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Dynamics of Post-Injection Fuel Flow in Mini-Sac Diesel Injectors Part 1: Admission of 1 External Gases and Implications for Deposit Formation

Makri, K., Lockett, R. D. ORCID: 0000-0002-7883-6241 & Jeshani, M. (2019). Dynamics of Post-Injection Fuel Flow in Mini-Sac Diesel Injectors Part 1: Admission of 1 External Gases and Implications for Deposit Formation. International Journal of Engine Research, 22(4), pp. 1133-1153. doi: 10.1177/1468087419895425


Samples of unadditized, middle distillate diesel fuel were injected through real-size optically accessible mini-sac diesel injectors into ambient air at common rail pressures of 250 bar and 350 bar respectively. High-resolution images of white light scattered from the internal mini-sac and nozzle flow were captured on a high-speed monochrome video camera. Following the end of each injection, the momentum-driven evacuation of fuel liquid from the mini-sac and nozzle holes resulted in the formation of a vapour cloud and bubbles in the mini-sac, and vapour capsules in the nozzle holes. This permitted external gas to gain entrance to the nozzle holes.
The diesel fuel in the mini-sac was observed to rotate with large initial vorticity, which decayed until the fuel became stationary. The diesel fuel remaining in the nozzle holes was observed to move inwards towards the mini-sac or outwards towards the nozzle exit in concert with the rotational flow in the mini-sac. The mini-sac bubbles’ internal pressure differences revealed that the bubbles must have contained previously dissolved oxygen and nitrogen. Under diesel engine operating conditions, this multi-phase mixture would be highly reactive and could initiate local pyrolysis and/or oxidation reactions. Finally, the dynamical behaviour of the diesel fuel in the nozzle holes would support the admission of external hot combustion gases into the nozzle holes, establishing the conditions for oxidation/pyrolysis reactions with surrounding liquid fuel films.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the accepted manuscript version of an article accepted for publication in International Journal of Engine Research.
Publisher Keywords: Diesel, fuel injection system, internal flow, mini-sac, soot, deposit, scattering, cavitation.
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TL Motor vehicles. Aeronautics. Astronautics
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
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