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Cooking as part of a global sustainable food system - a 6 country pilot survey

Reynolds, C. ORCID: 0000-0002-1073-7394, Schmidt Rivera, X., Frankowska, A. , Kluczkovski, A., Bridle, S. L., Martins, C., Akparibo, R., Auma, C., Bridge, G., Armstrong, M. B., Osei-Kwasi, H., Bockarie, T. & Mensah, D. (2020). Cooking as part of a global sustainable food system - a 6 country pilot survey. Poster presented at the Nutrition & Cooking Education Symposium, 12 Jun 2020, Newcastle, Australia.


The cooking of food is a nexus point for multiple issues. Cooking is intertwined with dietary choices, affects the nutrient content and environmental impacts of food, and is linked to time use and gender roles in the home. Due to its intersectionality, changing cooking practices can potentially impact upon multiple Sustainable Development Goals. However, cookery is seldom considered in the wider perspective of a sustainable food system - with only ethnographic studies examining how cooking is performed being the norm. Overall there is a limited evidence base at the population level of how different nations/populations currently cook, and how changing this would result in changes to the environment, consumer health, and economy. The current research aims to create a wider evidence base to demonstrate and quantify why cooking and food practices are important, and how they differ by geography. In this research we piloted a ~40 minute survey using the Qualtrics online survey panel in 6 countries (Nigeria, Ghana, India, Kenya, Brazil, and the UK). Participants were asked a series of questions about their: dietary preferences (e.g. vegetarian, omnivore, etc.), cooking habits (e.g frequency of cooking at home), food preparation (e.g. time taken), cooking methods used (e.g. boil, fry, roast), and perceptions of food waste, food safety, calorie and carbon footprints, as well as food security and demographic questions. 10-15 culturally appropriate/popular foods were accessed through a food frequency questionnaire, containing images of food portion size estimates, from food manuals developed by a research group from the Federal University of ParanĂ¡ (; Additional images of bread were sourced from the Food4Me project (DOI: 10.2196/jmir.3105). Figure 1 presents this list of foods. Recruitment used Qualtrics global recruitment services as well the Prolific panel (for the UK). Participants were potentially given financial compensation for taking part by Qualtrics, but this was outside the control of the research team. The surveys were deployed from the 25th of March, 2020. There were slight recruitment issues for some countries due to parts of the survey being carried out in Ramadan and during the COVID-19 lockdown, and so the recruitment window had to be extended until the 1st of June 2020. Participant rates, gender splits (Figure 2) and dietary patterns (figure 3) varied by country. Figure 4 to 10 compare Chicken food habits and perceptions across the 6 countries.

Publication Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Poster)
Publisher Keywords: Cooking; Habits; Environment
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor
T Technology > TX Home economics
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Healthcare Services Research & Management > Food Policy
[thumbnail of Cooking Poster - slide format - Presentation.pdf]
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