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Growth of 1D TiO2nanostructures on Ti substrates incorporated with residual stress through humid oxidation and their characterizations

Arafat, M., Dinan, B., Haseeb, A. , Akbar, S., Rahman, B. M., Rozali, S. & Naher, S. (2021). Growth of 1D TiO2nanostructures on Ti substrates incorporated with residual stress through humid oxidation and their characterizations. Nanotechnology, 32(47), article number 475607. doi: 10.1088/1361-6528/ac1d77


Different Ti substrates, such as particles (as-received and ball milled), plate and TEM grid were oxidized for the growth of 1D TiO2 nanostructures. The Ti substrates were oxidized for 4 h at temperatures of 700-750 °C in humid and dry Ar containing 5 ppm of O2. The effects of residual stress on the growth of 1D TiO2 nanostructures were investigated. The residual stress inside the Ti particles was measured by XRD-sin2ψ technique. The oxidized Ti substrates were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). Results revealed that humid environment enhances the growth of 1D TiO2 nanostructures. Four different types of 1D morphologies obtained during humid oxidation, e.g., stacked, ribbon, plateau and lamp-post shaped nanostructures. The presence of residual stress significantly enhances the density and coverage of 1D nanostructures. The as-grown TiO2 nanostructures possess tetragonal rutile structure having length up to 10 µm along the <1 0 1> directions. During initial stage of oxidation, a TiO2 layer is first formed on Ti substrate. Lower valence oxides (Ti3O5, Ti2O3 and TiO) then form underneath the TiO2 layer and induce stress at the interface of oxide layers. The induced stress plays significant role on the growth of 1D TiO2 nanostructures. The induced stress is relaxed by creating new surfaces in the form of 1D TiO2 nanostructures. A diffusion based model is proposed to explain the mechanism of 1D TiO2 growth during humid oxidation of Ti. The 1D TiO2 nanostructures and TiO2 layer is formed by the interstitial diffusion of Ti4+ ions to the surface and reacts with the surface adsorbed hydroxide ions (OH-). Lower valence oxides are formed at the metal-oxide interface by the reaction between diffused oxygen ions and Ti ions.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the Accepted Manuscript version of an article accepted for publication in Nanotechnology. IOP Publishing Ltd is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The Version of Record is available online at
Publisher Keywords: Ti substrates; TiO2 nanostructures; 1D nanostructures; Thermal oxidation; Humid oxidation; Rutile
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
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