City Research Online

What does antimicrobial stewardship look like where you are? Global narratives from participants in a Massive Open Online Course

Nampoothiri, V., Bonaconsa, C., Surendran, S. , Mbamalu, O., Nambatya, W., Ahabwe Babigumira, P., Castro-Sanchez, E. ORCID: 0000-0002-3351-9496, Ahmad, R. ORCID: 0000-0002-4294-7142, Broom, A., Szymczak, J., Zingg, W., Gilchrist, M., Holmes, A. H., Mendelson, M., Singh, S., McLeod, M. & Charani, E. (2022). What does antimicrobial stewardship look like where you are? Global narratives from participants in a Massive Open Online Course. JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance, 4(1), doi: 10.1093/jacamr/dlab186


Whilst Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) is being implemented in different countries, different contexts continue to present unique challenges. We investigated the challenges to implementing AMS in different countries by examining comments from clinical, academic, and lay learners participating in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) on tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

A 3-week MOOC titled “Tackling AMR: A social science approach” was developed with a global faculty in collaboration with the British Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and Imperial College London and launched in November 2019. Learners were asked specific questions about their experiences of AMS throughout the MOOC which included 38 optional free text prompts. Learners' free text responses from first three-course runs (November 2019 – July 2020) were collated and coded in NVivo 12 using a conventional content analysis approach to identify challenges to implementing AMS across countries.

Representing 114 countries, 1464 learners enrolled, with largest representation from the United Kingdom, India, Nigeria, Australia, and Pakistan. The learners described a range of AMS activities and team compositions. While recognising the importance of pharmacist and nurse roles in AMS, the learners reported that such roles remain ill-defined across countries, restricting the reach and potential of AMS strategies. A range of challenges to implementing AMS were described, including: limited awareness and engagement by the general public and healthcare workers (HCW) on the impact of AMR on human health, lack of adequate of governance and policy; inconsistencies in surveillance for antibiotic consumption and AMR, impeding feedback loops and improvement processes; human resource and technological constraints; variable access to key antibiotics; lack of ownership of antibiotic decision-making and buy-in from different clinical specialties. Patients’ knowledge, experiences and perspectives were recognised as a valuable source of information that needed to be incorporated in AMS initiatives to overcome cultural barriers to the judicious use of antibiotics.

Analysis of learner comments and reflections identified a range of enablers and barriers to AMS implementation across different healthcare economies. Common challenges to AMS implementation included the role of non-physician health care professionals, resources, knowledge of AMR and patient engagement and involvement in AMS.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright. The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Subjects: L Education > LB Theory and practice of education
Q Science > QR Microbiology
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Healthcare Services Research & Management
Text - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (784kB) | Preview
[img] Text - Accepted Version
This document is not freely accessible due to copyright restrictions.



Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login