City Research Online

Features of critical resource trade networks of lithium-ion batteries

Tian, X., Geng, Y., Sarkis, J. , Gao, C., Sun, X., Micic, T. ORCID: 0000-0001-6129-7694, Hao, H. & Wang, X. (2021). Features of critical resource trade networks of lithium-ion batteries. Resources Policy, 73, article number 102177. doi: 10.1016/j.resourpol.2021.102177


Critical resources are key for low carbon development. International trade in critical resources is commonplace. It is important to clarify country roles within this trade network so that resource supply risk can be mitigated and low carbon industries can be supported. This study investigates global trade of typical ores and chemical compounds for lithium-ion batteries—lithium carbonate, cobalt oxide, nickel sulfate, manganese sulfate, nickel ore and manganese ore. The period 2010–2018 is selected to explore different country roles using network analysis. A competition trade model is developed to identify relationships between countries. A critical resource influence model is developed using bootstrap percolation theory to simulate impacts arising from dominant countries—those countries with rich resource endowments or mature markets. Results show that dominant countries tend to maintain close trade relationships. Trade scale is a key factor influencing each country's trade competitiveness and influence. Several policy recommendations are proposed to promote sustainable resource trade and use.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2021. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Publisher Keywords: Critical resources, Network analysis, Trade, Low carbon development, Lithium-ion batteries, Governance
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
H Social Sciences > HC Economic History and Conditions
H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor
J Political Science > JZ International relations
T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TN Mining engineering. Metallurgy
Departments: School of Science & Technology
School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
[thumbnail of Features of critical resource trade - 20210603.pdf]
Text - Accepted Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

Download (1MB) | Preview


Add to AnyAdd to TwitterAdd to FacebookAdd to LinkedinAdd to PinterestAdd to Email


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login