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Evaluating implementation strategies for essential newborn care interventions in low- and low middle-income countries: a systematic review

Peven, K., Bick, D., Purssell, E. ORCID: 0000-0003-3748-0864, Rotevatn, A., Nielsen, J. and Taylor, C. (2020). Evaluating implementation strategies for essential newborn care interventions in low- and low middle-income countries: a systematic review. Health Policy and Planning,

Abstract

Neonatal mortality remains a significant health problem in low income settings. Low-cost essential newborn care (ENC) interventions with proven efficacy and cost-effectiveness exist but have not reached high coverage (≥90%). Little is known about the strategies used to implement these interventions or how they relate to improved coverage. We conducted a systematic review of implementation strategies and implementation outcomes for ENC in low- and low middle-income countries capturing evidence from five medical and global health databases from 1990-2018. We included studies of implementation of delayed cord clamping, immediate drying, skin-to-skin contact, and/or early initiation of breastfeeding implemented in the first hour (facility-based studies) or the first day (community-based studies) of life. Implementation strategies and outcomes were categorised according to published frameworks (Powell et al (2015): Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC), Proctor et al (2013): Outcomes for Implementation Research). The relationship between implementation strategies and outcomes was evaluated using standardised mean differences and correlation coefficients. Forty-three papers met inclusion criteria. Interventions included community-based care/health promotion and facility-based support and health care provider training. Included studies used 3-31 implementation strategies, , though the consistency with which strategies were applied was variable. Conduct educational meetings was the most frequently used strategy. Included studies reported 1-4 implementation outcomes with coverage reported most frequently. Heterogeneity was high and no statistically significant association was found between the number of implementation strategies used and coverage of ENC. This review highlights several challenges in learning from implementation of ENC in low- and low middle-income countries, particularly poor description of interventions and implementation outcomes. We recommend use of UK Medical Research Council guidelines (2015) for process evaluations and checklists for reporting implementation studies. Improved reporting of implementation research in this setting is necessary to learn how to improve service delivery and outcomes and thereby reduce neonatal mortality.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced version of an article accepted for publication in Health Policy and Planning following peer review. The version of record Peven, K., Bick, D., Purssell, E. , Rotevatn, A., Nielsen, J. and Taylor, C. (2020). Evaluating implementation strategies for essential newborn care interventions in low- and low middle-income countries: a systematic review. Health Policy and Planning is to be available online at:https://academic.oup.com/heapol
Publisher Keywords: child health, developing countries, health systems research, health workers, infant mortality, international health, maternal and child health, strategy, systematic reviews
Subjects: R Medicine
R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics
R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics > RJ101 Child Health. Child health services
Departments: School of Health Sciences > Nursing
Date Deposited: 14 Sep 2020 15:46
URI: https://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/24871
[img] Text - Accepted Version
This document is not freely accessible due to copyright restrictions.

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