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A review of grout materials in geothermal energy applications

Mahmoud, M., Ramadan, M., Pullen, K. R., Abdelkareem, M. A., Wilberforce, T., Olabi, A-G. and Naher, S. (2021). A review of grout materials in geothermal energy applications. International Journal of Thermofluids(100070), doi: 10.1016/j.ijft.2021.100070


Ground heat exchangers are surrounded by grout material, making it one of the most important components in geothermal energy applications since it significantly affects the system's thermal performance. The current study reviews the different types of grout materials and compares their thermophysical properties. The most critical parameter is the grout's thermal conductivity in which it always presents a proportional relation with the system's efficiency. Numerous factors are involved in this review to ascertain theier impact on the grouts’ performance such as flowability, shrinkage, moisture content, freezing, heat capacity, strength, permeability, solubility and thermal imbalance. The different grouts compared are bentonite, cement, sand, graphite, controlled low-strength material, dolomite, and phase change materials. The literature shows that phase change materials are the best choices of grouting since they can provide high storage capacity, stability and temperature uniformity. The major problem of such materials is their low thermal conductivity. Thus, it is recommended to use composite phase change materials to enhance their thermal conductivity and increase the storage/retrieval rate.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2021. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Publisher Keywords: Geothermal energyground heat exchangergrout materialgroutingborehole heat exchangerbackfill material
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TL Motor vehicles. Aeronautics. Astronautics
Departments: School of Mathematics, Computer Science & Engineering > Engineering > Mechanical Engineering & Aeronautics
Date Deposited: 12 Feb 2021 16:42
Text - Accepted Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

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