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Risk Assessment of Macronutrients and Minerals by Processed, Street, and Restaurant Traditional Pakistani Foods: a Case Study

Baig, J. A., Chandio, I. G., Kazi, T. G. , Afridi, H. I., Akhtar, K., Junaid, M., Naher, S. ORCID: 0000-0003-2047-5807, Solangi, S. A. & Malghani, N. A. (2022). Risk Assessment of Macronutrients and Minerals by Processed, Street, and Restaurant Traditional Pakistani Foods: a Case Study. Biological Trace Element Research, doi: 10.1007/s12011-022-03429-7


The current work is aimed to assess the impact of macronutrient and mineral contents in food products of packaged food, restaurant food, and street food in Hyderabad. The estimated daily intake of macronutrients and minerals, followed by the toxic risk assessment of microminerals by consuming studied food dishes, was also conducted. The collected products were freeze-dried and standard procedures for measuring macronutrients were followed. At the same time, the acid digestion method was used to prepare the solution for detecting minerals by atomic absorption spectrometry. The resulting data indicated that all the food dishes supplied 134–454 kcals/100 g. The chicken/meat and pulse food dishes of all three categories were enriched with protein except bhindi masala. All the food dishes have a massive variation in fat contents and differ based on the used quantity of hydrogenated oil during their preparations. A significant difference in the macro- and microminerals in studied food products was observed. However, all food dishes are a good supplementary source of fundamental nutrients, supplying the recommended daily allowances for adults. The estimated hazardous index (Ih) of microminerals in some street and restaurant food products (based on a survey) showed possible toxicity risk, especially for the workers of automechanic workshops (Ih > 1.00). Thus, it is concluded that the contaminated (cheap) raw materials and unhygienic conditions for preparing street and restaurant foods and hawking places (atmospheric pollution) are the significant sources of micromineral contamination.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at:
Publisher Keywords: Food · Proximate analysis; Macro minerals; Micro minerals; Dietary intake, Pakistani street foods; packed foods; restaurant foods
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor
Q Science > QD Chemistry
Q Science > QP Physiology
T Technology > TX Home economics
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
[img] Text - Accepted Version
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